Types of Wine
What are all the different types of wine, and what are their main characteristics? What food can you pair them with? What are the types of red wine, white wine, sparkling wine, and what other wine types are there? Find out in this summary below.
Also, if you are new to wine, you may find this summary of wine basics useful.
A visit to any wine or liquor store will show that there are literally thousands of different types of wine. It can be quite confusing to figure out the differences, and how to select the right wine.
To help in your understanding of the various wine types available, here is an overview:
One of the sources of confusion about different wine types is due to the different labeling of wine from different parts of the world.
In America and other parts of the "New World" (for example in California wines ) wine is typically labeled according to the variety of grape (eg, "Chardonnay"). However, in Europe wine is labeled by the region where the wine was produced (eg, "Chablis" which is a French wine from the Chardonnay grape, or "Rioja" which is a Spanish wine made primarily from the Tempranillo grape).
In addition, many types of wine are actually blends of grape varieties, with brand names invented by the winery. Often the label will indicate the types of grapes in the blend, but not always.
Types of Red Wine
Red wines are made from "black" (red-colored) grapes fermented with the skin included. The skin is what imparts the red color to the wine.
Red wines typically have a more robust flavor, and pair well with food that is similarly robust, such as red meats (beef, lamb), hearty pasta dishes, etc. They are usually drunk at or just below room temperature.
Types of red wine include:
Types of White Wine
White wines are from either "black" (red-colored) or "white" (green-colored) grapes, fermented without the skin.
White wines are usually drunk cold, with lighter foods such as poultry and fish.
White wines include:
Rosé wines are pink or blush-colored. The pink color comes from the fact that the grape skin is included for just the first few hours of the fermentation process, or sometimes due to the wine being a mixture of red and white wines. Most rosé wines are medium-sweet, especially in the US. But some of the best European rosés can be very dry.
The sweeter rosés tend to be favorites of people who are new to wine, because they are often light and somewhat sweet. For this reason, they are a good choice if you are new to wine.
Champagne is probably the best known sparkling wine. Although many dry sparkling wines are referred to as champagne, technically Champagne is sparkling wine from the Champagne region of France.
Other types of sparkling wine are Prosecco, a dry Italian sparkling wine, and Asti, a sweet Italian sparkling wine. Cava is a sparkling Spanish wine. The "sparkles" in sparkling wine are bubbles of carbon dioxide, which is a natural byproduct of the fermentation process.
Dessert and Fortified Wines
Dessert wines are very sweet, and intended to be drunk with or as a dessert course.
Fortified wines, as their name implies, are types of wine with brandy or other spirits added during fermentation. Many are quite sweet, depending on when the spirits are added, since that ends the fermentation process.
Dessert and fortified wines include: